Biometrics: Functions and How it Works in the Security System

biometrik adalah

Biometrics is one of the terms that we often hear in the context of security, especially in the identification process. In this modern era, the use of this technology has become an effective solution to improve security systems in various industries and applications.

Through this article, you will study the definition of biometrics in depth, starting from its definition, function, and types, to how it works. Let’s read the full explanation below!


Biometrics is a technology that uses an individual’s unique biological characteristics as an identification method in security systems. In an all-digital world, the need for security is increasingly becoming a priority. Therefore, biometrics is an effective solution for ensuring a person’s valid identity.

This technology takes advantage of unique physical or behavioral features inherent in a person, such as fingerprints, voice, face, iris, or even DNA. Everyone has unique physical characteristics, enabling the system to accurately distinguish one individual from another.

The application of biometrics in security systems aims to increase the level of security and identity authenticity. Conventional identification methods such as the use of passwords, PINs, and identity cards are still vulnerable to risks of loss, theft, and impersonation. In this case, biometrics provide an advantage because a person’s biological characteristics cannot be easily faked or stolen by someone else.

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Biometrics has various important functions in security systems. By using individual biological characteristics, this identification technology provides advantages in terms of security, identity authenticity, and efficiency. The following are some of the main functions of the technology.

1. Increasing Security

One of the main functions of this technology is to increase the level of security in the system. Biological characteristics such as fingerprints or faces are difficult for others to fake or change. Using this technology, security systems can ensure that only authorized individuals can access restricted areas, sensitive information, and critical devices. This helps prevent unauthorized access and potentially harmful abuse.

2. Accurate Identity Verification

An important function of biometrics is accurate identity verification. In this system, a person’s biological characteristics are retrieved and compared with pre-registered biometric data. This allows the system to verify a person’s identity with a high degree of accuracy. By using this technology, the risk of misidentification can be reduced, resulting in greater reliability in the identity verification process.

3. Simplifying Identification Process

Biometrics is useful to help facilitate the process of identifying a person. In conventional identification methods such as the use of passwords, PINs, or identity cards, users must remember complex information or bring physical documents just to gain access. With biometrics, users can easily access systems or facilities using only their biological characteristics. This reduces dependence on forgettable or lost information and provides convenience in using the system.

4. Decreasing All Kinds of Fraud

A significant function of this technology is to reduce the risk of fraud and identity crimes. Its characteristics are difficult for others to fake or steal. By using it, the security system can effectively prevent cases of identity crimes such as identity theft or illegal use of identity documents. This helps protect individuals and organizations from financial loss or reputational damage caused by fraud.

5. Increase in Efficiency

In addition to security functions, biometrics also provide benefits in terms of efficiency. The identification process using the technology can be done quickly and easily. Now, one doesn’t have to spend time entering passwords or using physical identification cards. In situations where fast and efficient access is required such as at airports or in financial transactions, the technology can save time and speed up the identification process.

Read also: How Face Recognition Technology is Used in Different Industries


There are several types of methods used to identify individuals based on their biological characteristics. The following are common types of this technology.

1. Fingerprint

Fingerprint recognition is one of the most commonly used biometric methods. Each individual has a unique fingerprint pattern, and this system will use a special sensor to scan and record an image of a person’s fingerprint. This fingerprint data is then compared with previously stored data to verify the identity of the individual. Fingerprint technology has been widely used in a variety of applications ranging from mobile devices to secure access control.

2. Voice Recognition

Speech recognition is a method that uses a person’s voice as a way to identify them. Each individual has unique vocal characteristics including speech rate, pitch, and intonation. Speech recognition systems record individual voice patterns and compare them with pre-registered voice data. This technology is used in applications such as voice security of electronic devices or telephone authentication systems.

3. Iris Recognition

Iris recognition uses the iris pattern as an identification method. The iris is the colored part in the middle of the eye with a unique pattern for each individual. The iris recognition system scans and compares a person’s iris pattern with stored iris data. Iris recognition has a high degree of accuracy because the iris pattern does not change over time. This system is widely used in high-level security such as airports, financial centers, and other restricted areas.

4. Facial Recognition

Facial recognition uses a person’s facial features to identify them. This system analyzes various facial features such as face shape, eye size, nose, and mouth. The facial feature data is then compared with the existing data in the database. Facial recognition has been widely used in a variety of applications including mobile device security, facial recognition in photos or videos, and access to restricted buildings or areas.

5. DNA

As the most advanced method, DNA analysis can be used as an identification method. Each individual has a unique DNA sequence in their cells. DNA analysis compares individual DNA sequences with pre-existing DNA data. This technology is usually used in cases that require very high levels of security and identification such as criminal investigations or family identification in forensics.

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How it Works

The biometric system works by taking samples of individual biological characteristics and comparing them with data in the database. For example, when using fingerprints as a biometric method, the system scans the user’s fingerprints and compares them with previously recorded fingerprints. If there is a high match, then the system will recognize the individual and provide appropriate access.

To carry out this process, the biometric system will use complex algorithms to analyze and compare the new data (inserted fingerprint, voice, face, etc.) with existing data in the database to match it. These algorithms require powerful computer processing to perform the necessary calculations quickly and accurately. Therefore, the more complex the data entered, the longer the process will take.

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